Infective endocarditis refers to any infection of the endocardial surface of the heart.
Infective endocarditis (IE) can be a life-threatening condition associated with a number of severe complications. It refers to infection of the inner lining of the heart known as the endocardium. Infection of the endocardium may involve one or more heart valves or an intracardiac device (e.g. prosthetic valve).
The clinical presentation of IE is highly variable. There are two major disease courses:
There are three major types, or categories, of IE:
Globally, IE is becoming increasingly common, associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
Traditionally, IE was considered a fatal condition, which commonly occurred in patients with pre-existing valvular disease from rheumatic heart disease. In the modern era, use of antibiotics has significantly improved outcomes.
Within the UK, the precise incidence of IE is difficult to quantify. This is because of differences in incidence of underlying cardiac disease (e.g. rheumatic fever), intravenous drug use and use of indwelling cardiac devices (e.g. pacemakers, heart valves).
It is estimated that over 50% of IE cases occur in patients aged > 60 years old. With the increasing number of invasive procedures and use of intracardiac devices, the incidence of IE is expected to rise. The use of devices has led to an increase in Staphylococcal IE, which is now the most common cause.
There are many risk factors associated with the develop of IE, particularly underlying cardiac disease.
Streptococcal and staphylococcal species are implicated in the majority of IE cases.
IE is mainly caused by bacterial infections that enter the bloodstream and then deposit on the endocardial surface of the heart.
The most common cause of IE overall is Staphylococcal aureus, which is the usual pathogen in IE associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU) and prosthetic heart valves. Other commonly isolated bacteria are Streptococcal and Enterococcal species, which used to be the most common cause of IE. They are typically associated with subacute IE.
Causes of endocarditis can be divided into:
NVE is commonly due to underlying rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease or structural heart disease. It is usually due to Streptococcal species and presents with a subacute course.
The aetiology of PVE depends on if it occurs early (< 1 year) or late (> 1 year). The time differentiation is an arbitrary cut-off. Some guidelines quote within 60 days as ‘early IE’. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) account for 30% of PVE (most common).
Due to injection through the venous system, IE affecting the right side of the heart is commonly seen with IVDU. Most common organism implicated is Staphylococcus aureus.
Defined as endocarditis with no definite microbiological aetiology despite adequate sampling. Culture negative IE may be due to:
Rarely, endocarditis may occur in the absence of infection. Other terms for non-infective endocarditis include marantic endocarditis or Libman-Sacks endocarditis. It is due to sterile platelet thrombi on heart valves.
A variety of pathogens can cause IE.
The most common microorganisms that cause IE are Staphylococcal, Streptococcal and Enterococcal species. As discussed, the microorganisms implicated in IE depends on the underlying cardiac disease (e.g. prosthetic or native valve) and patient factors (e.g. intravenous drug use).
Traditionally, enterococcal microorganisms were classified as beta-haemolytic group D streptococci. However, they have now been reclassified to an independent genus.
Account for 5% of subacute IE
Associated with a poor prognosis (~50% mortality)
IE is characterised by the formation of vegetations on cardiac valves.
IE occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and deposit onto the endocardial surface of the heart. Classically, a dental procedure is associated with a brief bacteraemia that our immune system is able to control. However, in patients with underlying cardiac disease (e.g. rheumatic heart disease) it can lead to deposition and adherence of bacteria.
Once deposited on the endocardial surface, the organisms adhere and eventually lead to invasion and destruction of the valve leaflets. The key pathological process in IE is formation of infected vegetations.
On the endocardial surface, a small nidus of adherent platelet-fibrin complex becomes infected by deposited bacteria. This complex forms a vegetation, which is essentially a collection of fibrin, platelets, white blood cells, red blood cell debris and clusters of bacteria. The vegetation may increase in size and damage the endocardial tissue including valves.
The vegetation can cause local destruction of valves, which leads to regurgitant murmurs and eventually congestive cardiac failure. If this process occurs acutely (e.g. acute IE secondary to Staphylococcal aureus) it can lead to acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock. The order of frequency in which the valves are affected include:
As well as local cardiac damage, embolic events can occur due to vegetations breaking off and being deposited in other organ systems. The embolisation of fragments of vegetations can lead to the formation of abscesses (e.g. cerebral abscess in left sided endocarditis or pulmonary abscesses in right-sided endocarditis). Alternatively, activation of the immune system and clustering of immune complexes within vegetations can lead to immune-mediated vasculitis within distant vessels following embolisation (e.g. glomerulonephritis).
IE is most commonly associated with fever (~90%) and cardiac murmurs (~85%).
The clinical presentation of IE is highly variable depending on the speed of development (acute vs subacute), underlying organism (e.g. Streptococcal vs Staphylococcal) and patients co-morbidities.
In general, acute IE is associated with a rapidly progressive infection that can cause significant cardiac damage, valvular insufficiency and heart failure with or without embolic phenomenon. Subacute IE causes a more prolonged course with low-grade fevers and non-specific symptoms with our without embolic phenomenon.
*NOTE: cardiac complications (e.g. valvular insufficiency, heart failure) seen in up to 50% of cases.
Around 25% of patients with IE have evidence of embolic phenomenon at the time of diagnosis. Peripheral stigmata of IE are increasingly less common due to earlier recognition and diagnosis.
Echocardiography and blood cultures form the key investigations in the diagnosis of IE.
Positive microbiology with multiple sets of blood cultures is critical in the diagnosis of IE. In any patient with suspected IE, at least 3 sets of blood cultures should be taken at 30 minute intervals with a good volume of blood per bottle (10 mls). Peripheral cultures should be taken with strict aseptic technique. Ideally, blood cultures should be taken before initiation of systemic antibiotics.
NOTE: pathological examination of resected valvular tissue or embolic fragments remains the diagnostic gold standard.
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transoesophgeal echocardiography (TOE) are the imaging modalities of choice in suspected endocarditis. TTE is a useful initial investigation that is non-invasive. If the TTE is negative or of suboptimal quality, and the index of suspicion is high, then a TOE is performed. In addition, a TOE is performed following a positive TTE to look for local complications (e.g. valve perforation, abscess formation).
The sensitivity and specificity of TTE for the diagnosis IE is 70% and ~90%, respectively. For TOE, it is 96% and ~90%, respectively.
Findings on TTE/TOE suggestive of IE include:
Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging (e.g. CT-PET) are increasingly being used in the diagnosis of IE, particularly for equivocal cases.
In 2000, the modified Duke criteria were recommended for the diagnosis of IE.
The Modified Duke criteria contains both major and minor criteria that are used to make a diagnosis of IE. We detail a simplified version of the Modified Duke criteria below.
Based on the criteria, IE can be divided into definitive, possible and rejected:
NOTE: the modified Duke criteria has a lower diagnostic accuracy for prosthetic valve endocarditis and right-sided IE.
The diagnosis of IE should follow the European Society of Cardiology diagnostic algorithm.
The European Society of Cardiology produced a diagnostic algorithm in 2015, which incorporates the traditional modified Duke criteria.
The major difference to the modified Duke criteria is the inclusion, and expansion, of using imaging to support the diagnosis of IE. This is particularly important for equivocal cases (possible/rejected) where there is still a high suspicion of IE. New imaging modalities (MRI, CT, CT-PET) can be used to help diagnose embolic events (e.g. cerebral MRI) or assess cardiac involvement (e.g. CT-PET in prosthetic valves) where TTE/TOE findings are negative or inconclusive.
A prolonged course of targeted antibiotics and early involvement of the IE team are essential.
Prolonged use of antibiotics form the cornerstone of treatment of IE. Antibiotics should always be targeted to the organism that has been cultured with reference to the resistance patterns. This should always be completed in close communication with the endocarditis team (discussed below) or microbiology.
Here, we discuss typical regimens for the two most common organisms: Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.
NOTE: in the presence of a prosthetic valve, rifampicin and gentamicin should be added to both regimens and the duration should be ≥6 weeks.
The following regimens are typically used for oral Streptococci and Streptococcus bovis. The regimen depends on how resistant the organism is to penicillin. This alters treatment duration, agent choice and need for combination therapy. If no resistance, the usual antibiotics may include:
When IE is highly suspected, but the organism is not yet known, empirical antibiotics can be started following three sets of blood cultures.
Up to 50% of patients with IE will require surgery during their inpatient hospital stay. The two main aims of surgery are removal of infected tissue and reconstruction of cardiac anatomy (i.e. valve repair or replacement).
There are numerous indications for surgery, which can broadly be divided into the following:
Based on the underlying indication, the urgency of surgery can be divided into three groups:
All patients with strongly suspected or confirmed IE should be referred to the IE team. This team includes, but not limited too, a cardiologist, cardiothoracic surgeon, microbiologist and nurse specialist.
Patients with complicated IE, which refers to IE with heart failure, abscess formation or embolic complications, need referral to a tertiary centre with cardiothoracic facilities.
Patients high-risk of developing IE may be offered prophylactic antibiotics.
Prophylactic antibiotics may be prescribed to high-risk patients undergoing high-risk procedures.
High-risk procedures may include:
Antibiotic prophylaxis is now only recommended for a sub-group of high-risk patients. This group is defined as any patient with:
Options for prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures (if benefit is felt to outweigh risk) may include:
IE can be a life-threatening condition with development of numerous complications.
Heart failure is the most frequent and one of the most severe complications of IE. It is a common indication for surgery.
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